Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) in Latin America and the Caribbean

Central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) in Latin America and the Caribbean 5

by Viviana Alfonso C, Steven Kamin and Fabrizio ZampolliOur statistical analysis identifies important drivers of engagement in CBDC development: the extent of innovation, the presence of fast payment systems, government effectiveness, financial account ownership, financial development more generally and the extent of the public’s interest in CBDCs.

Platform-based business models and financial inclusion

Platform-based business models and financial inclusion 9

by Karen Croxson, Jon Frost, Leonardo Gambacorta and Tommaso VallettiWe show that platforms have helped to achieve impressive gains in financial inclusion, both in emerging market and developing economies and in advanced economies such as the United Kingdom.

Building benchmarks portfolios with decreasing carbon footprints

Building benchmarks portfolios with decreasing carbon footprints 10

by Eric Jondeau, Benoit Mojon and Luiz Awazu Pereira da SilvaIn this paper, we build portfolios with a progressively falling carbon footprint, which passive investors could use as a new Paris-consistent (PC) benchmark while keeping their risk-adjusted returns at the same level as those of business-as-usual (BAU) benchmarks.